Two studies assessed the sexual orientation of youth with gay fathers Miller, ; Bailey et al. Sexualities 18, — A total of 63 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were collected see list in Table 1.
Gay father's parenting in its essence is no different to that of lesbians or heterosexuals, with most studies demonstrating warmth and sensitivity on the part of gay father and the ability to build secure base relationships with their children, factors that in turn are predictive of children's psychological adjustment.
Sullins D. In recent years, married or cohabiting gay and lesbian couples have acquired children through artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization.
Peer relations among adolescents with female samesex parents. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior, the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding of the realities of sex. There is not the length of time to make the claims the studies are making.
Means typically used include surveys, interviews, cross-cultural studies, physical arousal measurements  sexual behavior, sexual fantasy, or a pattern of erotic arousal. And by the way, the Regnerus article is far too much still in dispute to be cited.
US national longitudinal lesbian family study: Psychological adjustment of year-old adolescents. Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterossexual fathers. Why parenthood, and why now? Some fathers interviewed considered they had removed their parental role from their sense of gendered embodiment, while others thought they embodied both roles as mothers and fathers, extending the boundaries of what was accepted as family beyond biological connections Berkowitz, b.
Clinical experience would suggest that motherlessness, while not studied as extensively as fatherlessness, causes even greater damage to a child, because the role of the mother is so crucial in establishing a child's ability to trust and to feel safe in relationships.
In addition, as Marks notes, the general consensus is that being raised in these families presents advantages for the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay.
It is hard to imagine explanations that point to the quality of parenting per se. More than half of the studies were published after and the overwhelming majority were conducted in the United States. Nevertheless, Bucher's study reported that some sons might have struggled with accepting and disclosing their father's sexual orientation to others if the sons themselves were highly gendered and homonegative.
Findings from the New Family Structures Study. In the last few years, at least three meta-analysis have been published. However, these analyses are limited to 44 adolescents whose mother reported living in a marriage or marriage-like relationship with a person of the same sex.